The First Canadian Army was a field army and the senior formation of the Canadian Army that served on the Western Front from July 1944 until May 1945 during the Second World War. The First Canadian Army was formed in early 1942, replacing the existing unnumbered Canadian Corps, as the growing number of Canadian forces in the United Kingdom necessitated an expansion to two corps. By the end of 1943 Canadian formations in the United Kingdom consisted of three infantry divisions, two armoured divisions, and two independent armoured brigades. The first commander was Lieutenant-General A.G.L. "Andy" McNaughton, who was replaced in 1944 by General H. D. G. "Harry" Crerar. Both had been senior artillery officers in the Canadian Corps in the Great War. Allied formations of other nationalities were added to the First Canadian Army to keep it at full strength
Peacekeepers monitor and observe peace processes in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they may have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. Accordingly, UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmets because of their light blue berets or helmets) can include soldiers, police officers, and civilian personnel.
On July 10, 1943, the PPCLI, forming part of the 1st Canadian Infantry Division and the British Eighth Army, landed in Sicily during Operation Husky. The Patricia won its first battle honours of the Second World War at Leonforte.[a 6] Later, on September 4, 1943, the regiment landed and fought in Italy, advancing North for two months. The unit was slowed down by the demolished bridges and the German rear guard.[a 6] In December 1943 the regiment fought during the Moro River Campaign; that year the soldiers spent Christmas in Ortona.
In May 1944 the PPCLI took part in the offensive against the Hitler Line, west of Monte Cassino, during the allied offensive against Rome.[a 6] At that point the regiment was a component of the newly formed 1st Canadian Corps.[a 6] In August the unit took part in the offensive against the Gothic Line and in the assaults on San Fortunato and Rimini.
On March 13, 1945, the 1st Canadian Corps was transferred to Northwest Europe where it joined the 1st Canadian Army and took part in the liberation of the Netherlands. Shortly after, the regiment captured the city of Apeldoorn, and, on May 7, 1945, it was the first allied force to enter Amsterdam.
Korean War (1950–1954)
On April 22, 1951, Chinese forces undertook a major offensive against the United Nations forces and pierced through the first line of defence held by the 6th South Korean Division. During the Battle of Kapyong the 2nd Battalion, PPCLI, the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, and A Company, 72nd Heavy Tank Battalion (US) were tasked with the defence of the Kapyong Valley. The formation delayed the Chinese forces for three days while United Nations forces withdrew to a new defensive line, thus saving Seoul. For their action, these three units received the United States Presidential Unit Citation and the Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation.
On May 25, 1951, the 2nd Battalion, PPCLI was transferred to the 25th Canadian Infantry Brigade within the 1st Commonwealth Division. In the fall, the 2nd Battalion was replaced by 1PPCLI and returned to Calgary. Meanwhile, in Canada, a new battalion was created on November 30, 1950. This 3rd Battalion trained at CFB Wainwright, CFB Borden, and Camp Ipperwash, before sending troops with the 1st and 2nd Battalions during their tour in Korea.
The 3rd Battalion replaced the 1st Battalion in the fall of 1952, and occupied Hill 355 until late November 1952. After three months of active service the battalion was disbanded on February 8, 1954.
LANDING IN SICILY * Leonforte * Agira * SICILY, 1943 * The Moro * The Gully * LIRI VALLEY * Hitler Line * GOTHIC LINE * RIMINI LINE * San Fortunato * Savio Bridgehead * Naviglio Canal * Fosso Munio * Granarolo * ITALY, 1943-1945 * Apeldoorn * NORTH-WEST EUROPE, 1945
Kapyong * KOREA, 1950-1953.
Pte Tolver Robert Herbert George
Service Number: L800029
Born: Jan 18, 1925 Fort Qu'Appelle, Saskatchewan
Discharged: Killed In Action
Served In:Korea, World War 2
Service: CA (Canadian Army)
Battle Group:United Nations Command (UNC)
Regiment: Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, R.C.I.C.
The Battle of Kapyong also known as the Battle of Jiaping was fought during the Korean War between United Nations (UN) forces—primarily Australian and Canadian—and the Chinese communist People's Volunteer Army. The fighting occurred during the Chinese Spring Offensive and saw the 27th British Commonwealth Brigade establish blocking positions in the Kapyong Valley, on a key route south to the capital, Seoul. The two forward battalions—3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (3 RAR) and 2nd Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry (2 PPCLI)—occupied positions astride the valley and hastily developed defences. As thousands of South Korean soldiers began to withdraw through the valley, the Chinese infiltrated the brigade position under the cover of darkness, and assaulted the Australians on Hill 504 during the evening and into the following day.
Although heavily outnumbered, the 27th Brigade held their positions into the afternoon before the Australians were finally withdrawn to positions in the rear of the brigade, with both sides having suffered heavy casualties. The Chinese then turned their attention to the Canadians on Hill 677, but during a fierce night battle they were unable to dislodge them. The fighting helped blunt the Chinese offensive and the actions of the Australians and Canadians at Kapyong were important in assisting to prevent a breakthrough on the United Nations Command central front, and ultimately the capture of Seoul. The two battalions bore the brunt of the assault and stopped an entire Chinese division during the hard fought defensive battle. The next day the Chinese withdrew back up the valley, in order to regroup. Today, the battle is regarded as one of the most famous actions fought by the Australian and Canadian armies in Korea.
The Star was awarded for six months service on active operations for Army and Navy, and two months for active air-crew between 02 September 1939 and 08 May 1945 (Europe) or 02 September 1945 (Pacific).
The Star was awarded for one day or more of service in France, Belgium, Holland or Germany between 06 June 1944 (D-Day) and 08 May 1945.
The medal was earned for serving one day under United Nations' command in Korea or adjacent areas, including Japan and Okinawa. The medal could also be awarded for an aggregate of thirty days, which need not have been consecutive, spent on official visits of inspection to the qualifying area. The qualifying period was 27 June 1950 to 27 July 1954 (one year longer than for the Canadian Korean War Medal).
Although the medal was usually awarded to Canadians for six months service in Britain between 03 September 1939 and 08 May 1945, the exact terms were: Service in the forces in non-operational areas subjected to air attack or closely threatened, providing such service lasted for three or more years. Service overseas or outside the country of residence, providing that such service lasted for one year, except in territories threatened by the enemy or subject to bomb attacks, in which case it was six months prior to 02 September 1945. Under the terms of this last condition, Canadians serving for one year in Newfoundland were eligible and persons serving for six months in Hong Kong were also eligible. The qualifying period in mine and bomb disposal was three months. Canadians serving in West Africa, Palestine and India, other than operational air crew, qualified for this medal. Those awarded the GC or GM for civil defence received this medal. Home Guard and others in Britain qualified for this medal.
The Canadian Volunteer Service Medal is granted to persons of any rank in the Naval, Military or Air Forces of Canada who voluntarily served on Active Service and have honourably completed eighteen months (540 days) total voluntary service from September 3, 1939 to March 1, 1947.
The War Medal was awarded to all full-time personnel of the armed forces and merchant marines for serving for 28 days between 03 September 1939 and 02 September 1945. In the Merchant Navy, the 28 days must have been served at sea.
Awarded to Canadian military personnel for one day on the strength of an army unit in Korea; or 28 days afloat; or one sortie over Korea by a member of the RCAF , 02 July 1950 - 27 July 1953.
The Battle of Kapyong is one of Canada's greatest, yet least-known, military achievements. For two days in April, 1951, a battalion of roughly 700 Canadian troops helped defend a crucial hill in the front lines of the Korean War against a force of about 5,000 Chinese soldiers. Besieged by waves of attackers, the Canadians held their position amid the horror of close-combat until the assaulting force had been halted and the Canadians could be relieved at the cost of 10 dead and 23 wounded. Their determined stand contributed significantly to the defeat of the Communist offensive in South Korea that year. In addition to the Battle Honour Kapyong, the 2nd Battalion, PPCLI was granted permission to add a US battle streamer to its Regimental Colour, and became the only Canadian unit awarded the United States Distinguished Unit Citation.
August 12, 1950 Regina, Saskatchewan
Pte Tolver worked in construction and on a farm prior to his join the service. He enjoyed playing baseball, softball, hockey and pool. He served (L106710) for two years at the end of World War II. Robert worked as a construction and farm labourer prior to re-enlisting at Regina in 1950, and was the first Regina casualty of the Korean War.
Son of Herbert Tolver. Brother of Charles, Gordon, James and Henry, Margaret, Mrs. J.G. Gabriel, Mrs. J. Eplen, Mrs. W. Dove and Mrs. H. Grover.
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Pte Robert Herbert George Tolver
on other official websites
France And Germany Star
United Nations Service Medal Korea
Canadian Volunteer Service Medal
War Medal (1939-45)
Canadian Korea Medal
Page 73 from Korea
Book of Remembrance (Click to Enlarge)
Tolver Lake, Saskatchewan
Pte Robert Herbert George Tolver Clicking Thumbnail will enlarge image
Memorial plaques for Private Robert Herbert George Tolver, Corporal John Richard Toole, Private Aubrey Francis Thomson and Gunner Donald Edward Thompson on the Korea Veterans National Wall of Remembrance in Meadowvale Cemetery, Brampton, Ontario